German-Israeli relations against the background of Europeanization transpire at multiple levels. This essay begins with the context, and then turns to the content of the link between the German-Israeli relationship and the European framework. Finally it addresses the idea of comparison, of whether other “special relationships” compete with or complement the German-Israeli relationship, both within the ambit of the process of Europeanization and outside it. The focus here is German official policy towards Israel, which in no way diminishes the richness of ties in the societal and non-governmental arenas. By “the process of Europeanization” I mean the development of the EC/EU as a peace and economic community affording an antidote to the history of war in Europe, in which Germany has played a significant role in policies affecting Israel. The policies of Europe vis-à-vis Israel divide into two dimensions: a bilateral structural relationship; and the larger issue of the Arab-Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

This essay is published in Alfred Wittstock (ed.), Rapprochement, Change, Perception and Shaping the Future: 50 Years of German-Israeli and Israeli-German Diplomatic Relations. You can see the cover of the publication here and find out more about the publication and how to order here.